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The enthusiastic yet minute details of life generally go unnoticed. The naked eye is merely incapable of picking such detail.
To overcome this disparity in our natural sense, we have a microscope. An ingenious and irreplaceable invention in time.
Powerful microscopes enable you to look at the world differently. Literally, they are large equipment that empowers us to see what typically might fail to notice.
If a telescope scales the large celestial objects. The microscope scales the tiniest details of life.
How do microscopes work?
A microscope is essentially a pack of tubes with lenses for the passage of light. A simple microscope is just a magnifying lens.
Professionally used microscopes are known as a compound microscope. They are commonly used in labs and schools.
Unlike simple microscopes, a compound microscope has two lenses. These lenses are called the objective lens and the eyepiece.
Most microscopes can offer a magnification of 10x, 20x, and 40x. for better magnifications, scientists use a particular device called the electron microscope.
The Illumination System in a Microscope
A microscope’s illumination system is for transmitting the light for better viewing. Most modern lenses are now equipped with light sources.
A condenser is used for adequate illumination. Besides the condensers, other specific parameters form the microscope’s illumination system.
You can define the objective as a function of the focal length and field of view. A standard objective lens has a magnification ranging in between 2x and 100x.
The magnification is directly proportional to an objective’s focal length. Low-powered are better for illumination and viewing because of reduces chromatic aberrations.
A traditional objective never produces a flat image. This is not a disparity as the eye naturally accommodates the curvature.
The eyepiece must be carefully selected for a comfortable specimen examination. Eyepieces do not typically exceed 10x magnification in a microscope.
You need to place your eye at the exit-end of the eyepiece. A shorter or longer distance than 15mm makes observation painful for your eye.
The optical microscope
The main agenda behind the design of an optical microscope is organized illumination. Specimen imaging under optimal illumination is essential.
This is important for achieving high-quality images in microscopy. With proper adjustments, a condenser can enhance your field of view in an optical microscope.
How does a microscope get light on the specimen?
The specimen receives illumination is two way- the reflection and transmission. Reflection is the conventional way of illumination in optical microscopy.
Reflections assists in viewing exterior details for larger specimens. It is commonly used in low power microscopy.
Transmission occurs when the light shines through the specimen. It is typically used for transparent or clear objects.
The source of this transmitted light is the illuminator. The illuminator is below the stage of the microscope. Transmission is the most used method to illuminate a specimen.
The most classic form of the illuminator is present as a mirror. This mirror helps direct external light into the microscope.
The mirror can collect any suitable light sources. These sources include Skylight, Lamplight, or natural sunlight.
Mirror illuminators are generally shaped flat on one side and concave on the other. The purpose of the flat portion is to reflect the light. This leads to a sharper image.
The concave side is for is meant for concentrating the light rays. This causes a better illumination of the specimen.
Using only an illuminator to get more light on the specimen is insufficient. An illuminator with a dedicated light source does the job better.
These light sources include lamps, bulbs, and diodes. These types of light supplemented illuminators can be battery charged. This adds to the convenience of having one for your microscope.
You can use battery-powered illuminators for both reflection and transmission. In particular cases, you will need to use both the factors while viewing a specimen.
The only downside is that light illumination can heat up quickly. Take caution not to overheat the specimens that are virtually sensitive to high temperatures.
To avoid overheating, you can use diffusers or variable-intensity illuminators. These devices absorb and dissipate light, maintaining the integrity of your specimen.
For high-powered microscopes, you need a condenser lens. A condenser lens is essential for transmission.
Condensers are located at the bottom of the microscope’s stage. However, they are above the light source.
They are useful in concentrating the light. The light is focused all around the body of the specimen and the microscope’s objective lens.
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